Tongue Tie Useful Resources Scientific research reference list:
Ref A – Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding 1. Amir et al, Review of tongue-tie release at a tertiary maternity hospital. Journal Paediatric Child Health 2005 May-Jun;41(5-6):243-5. 2. Ballard JL, Auer CE, Khoury JC. Ankyloglossia: assessment, incidence, and effect of frenuloplasty on the breastfeeding dyad. Pediatrics. 2002 Nov;110(5) 3. Berry J et al, A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Tongue-Tie Division and Its Immediate Effect on Breastfeeding Medicine. July 2012, 7(3): 189-193. 4. Buryk M, Bloom D, Shope T Efficacy of neonatal release of ankyloglossia: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2011 Aug;128(2):280-8.NHMRC 5. Cho Anthony ,When should you treat tongue-tie in a newborn? Journal of Family Practice, 2010 Volume: 59 Issue: 12 Pages: 712a-712b 6. Coryllos, E. Congenital Tongue Tie and its impact on Breastfeeding, J Human Lactation Summer 2004 pp1-6 7. Dollberg S, Botzer E, Grunis E, Mimouni FB. Immediate nipple pain relief after frenotomy in breast-fed infants with ankyloglossia: a randomized, prospective study. J Pediatr Surg 2006 Sep;41(9):1598-600 8. Edmunds J, Miles SC, Fullbrook P. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature. Breastfeed Rev. 2011 Mar 9. Forlenza GP, Paradise Black NM, McNamara EG, Sullivan SE. Ankyloglossia, exclusive breastfeeding, and failure to thrive. Paediatrics 2010 Jun;125(6):e15004. 10. Geddes DT, Langton DB, Gollow I, Jacobs LA, Hartmann PE, Simmer K, Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effect on milk removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound. Paediatrics 2008 Jul;122(1):e188-94. 11. Hogan M, Westcott C, Griffith M. Randomized controlled trial of division of tongue tie in infants with feeding problems. J Pediatr Child Health.2005 MayJune; 41. 12. Ingram, J et al, The development of a tongue assessment tool to assist with tongue-tie identification 13. Karabulut R et al. Ankyloglossia and effects on breast-feeding, speech problems and mechanical/social issues in children. B-ENT 2008;4(2):81-5. 14. Khoo AK, Dabbas N, Sudhakaran N, Ade-Ajayi N, Patel S. Nipple pain at presentation predicts success of tongue-tie division for breastfeeding problems. Eur J Pediatr Surg 2009 Dec;19(6):370-3. 15. Knox, I. Tongue Tie and Frenotomy in breastfeeding. NeoReviews Vol. 11 No. 9 September 1, 2010 pp. e513 -e519 16. Kotlow, L. SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: Lasers and Soft Tissue Treatments for the Pediatric Dental, Alpha Omegan, Volume 101, Number 3, pp 140-151 17. Kotlow, L. The influence of the maxillary frenum on the development and pattern of dental caries on anterior teeth in breastfeeding infants: Prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Human Lactation, 2010; 26(3), 304-308. 18. Kotlow L. Diagnosis and treatment of ankyloglossia and tied maxillary fraenum in infants using Er:YAG and 1064 diode lasers. Eur Arch Paediatric Dent. 2011 Apr;12(2):106-12. 19. Kotlow, L, Ankyloglossia (tongue-tie): A diagnostic and treatment quandary, Pediatric Dentistry section of Quintessence International 1999;30:259-262 20. Notestine GE. The importance of the identification of ankyloglossia (short lingual frenulum) as a cause of breastfeeding problems. J Hum Lact 1990 Sep;6(3):113-5. 21. Messener AH, Lakakea. The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck 2002 Dec;127(6):539-45. 22. Pang, P et al. Laser Energy in Oral Soft Tissue Applications, Science and Research Committee, Academy of Laser Dentistry, J Laser Dent 2010 18 (3) 121-131 23. Pradhan S, Yasmine E, Mehta A. Management of Posterior Ankloglossia using the Er, Cr:YSGG Laser. Int J Laer Dent 2012;2(2):41-46 24. Srinivasan A, Dobrich C, Mitnick H, Feldman P, Srinivasan A. Ankyloglossia in breastfeeding infants: the effect of frenotomy on maternal nipple pain and latch. Breastfeed Med. 2006 Winter;1(4):216-24. 25. Tanya et al. Ankyloglossia: Treatment With Surgical Lasers – A Case Report Journal of Dental and Medical Volume 13, Issue 7 Ver. II (July. 2014), PP 61-64 26. Wiessinger D, Breastfeeding Difficulties as a Result of Tight Lingual and Labial Frena: A Case Report. 2013 Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Reuters, 2014) 27. Tongue-tie and frenotomy in infants with breastfeeding difficulties: achieving a balance. Power RF1, Murphy JF1. Arch Dis Child. 2015 May;100(5):489-94. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306211. Epub 2014 Nov 7
Ref B – Breastfeeding Benefits 1. Ueda, T et al, Influence of psychological stress on suckling-induced pulsatile oxytocin release, Obstet Gynecol. 1994 Aug;84(2):259-62. 2. Victora, Cesar G et al Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, Vol 387 January 30, 2016 3. NHMRC Infant Feeding Guidelines – Information for Health Workers, National Health and Medical Research Council Research Centre Feeding 2012 4. Horta BL et al. Evidence on the long-term effects of breastfeeding: systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007. 5. Ip S et al , Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2007. 6. Exclusive Breastfeeding and Risk of Dental Malocclusion. Australian Research Centre for Population Oral Health, School of Dentistry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, Jul 2015. 7. Kramer MS, Kakuma R, Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding (Systemic Review) 2009, (edited 2009). Cochrane Database 8. Effect of delivery room routines on success of first breast-feed. Lancet 1990; 336: 1105-07 9. Goldman AS. The immune system of human milk: antimicrobial, antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993 Aug;12(8):664-71 10. Slade HB, Schwartz SA. Mucosal immunity: the immunology of breast milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987 Sep;80(3 Pt 1):348-58 11. Immunology of Milk and the Neonate. Edited by J. Mestecky et al. Plenum Press, 1991. 12. Breastfeeding and Childhood Leukemia Incidence. A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(6):e151025. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.1025
Ref C – Breastfeeding Biomechanics 1. Elad David et al, Biomechanics of milk extraction during breast-feeding, PNAS 2013 Early Edition www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1319798111 2. Ramsay, D. T (GEDDES) et al, Anatomy of the lactating human breast redefined with ultrasound imaging J. Anat.(2005) 206, pp525–534 3. Geddes DT, Langton DB, Gollow I, Jacobs LA, Hartmann PE, Simmer K, Frenulotomy for breastfeeding infants with ankyloglossia: effect on milk removal and sucking mechanism as imaged by ultrasound. Paediatrics 2008 Jul;122(1):e188-94.
Ref D – Breastfeeding, Malocclusion & Orofacial development 1. Peres KG et al, Exclusive breastfeeding and risk of dental malocclusion, Pediatrics, July 2015, Volume 136 Issue 1. 2. Sum et al. Association of breastfeeding and three-dimensional dental arch relationships in primary dentition. BMC Oral Health. 2015; 15: 30. 3. Victora, Cesar G et al Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. The Lancet Breastfeeding Series Group, Vol 387 January 30, 2016) 4. Dezio M et al Tongue-tie, from embryology to treatment: a literature review, Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2015;4(1):e040101 5. Karjaleinen et al. Association between early weaning, non-nutritive sucking habits and occlusal anomalies in 3 year old Finnish children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 1999-9: 169-73 6. Page DC. “Real” early orthodontic treatment from birth to age 8. Funct Orthod. Spring-Summer; (1-2):,56-8 2003; 20:48-54
Ref E – Growth and urgency of treatment 1. Liu, Yi-Ping , Behrents, Rolf G., and Buschang, Peter H. (2010) Mandibular Growth, Remodelling, and Maturation During Infancy and Early Childhood. The Angle Orthodontist: January 2010, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 97-105.
Ref F – General Anaesthetics 1. Sprung, J et al. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder after early exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2012 Feb 29 (Vol. 87, No. 2, pp. 120-129). Elsevier. 2. Bong CL et al. The effects of exposure to general anesthesia in infancy on academic performance at age 12. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2013 Dec 1;117(6):1419-28 3. Flick, R et al. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes after early exposure to anesthesia and surgery. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov 1;128(5):e1053-61 4. Backeljauw B, et al. Cognition and brain structure following early childhood surgery with anesthesia. Pediatrics. 2015 Jul 1;136(1):e1-2
Ref G – Implications of a Descended Tongue Posture & Tongue Dysfunction across a life-span 1. Cockley, L et al. The Ortho[dontic] missing link. Could it be tied to the tongue? Journal of American Orthodontic Society Winter 2015 p 18-21 2. Jefferson, Y (DMD, MAGD) Mouth breathing: Adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior, General Dentistry January/February 2010 3. Karahan, S et al. Ankyloglossia in dogs: a morphological and immunohistochemical study. Anat Histo Embryol 2009 Apr;38(2):118-21. 4. Kanao, Akira et al. Application of functional orthodontic appliance to treatment of mandibular retrusion syndrome. Japanese Journal of Clinical Dentistry for children 2009 April (Vol.14 No.4) 5. Karabulut R, et al. Ankyloglossia and effects on breast-feeding, speech problems and mechanical/social issues in children. B ENT 2008;4(2):81-5. 6. Kieser JA et al. The role of oral soft tissues in swallowing function: what can the tongue pressure tell us? Australian Dental Journal 2014; 59 (1 supp): 155-161 7. Kotlow, L. The influence of the maxillary frenum on the development and pattern of dental caries on anterior teeth in breastfeeding infants: Prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Human Lactation, 2010; 26(3), 304-308. 8. Mason and Franklin. Orofacial Myofunctional disorders and Otaryngologists. Otaryngology 2010 Volume 4 Issue 4 9. Meenakshi, S. Assessment of Lingual Frenulum Lengths in Skeletal Malocclusion, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2014 Mar, Vol-8(3): 202-204 10. Northcutt, M The Lingual Fraenum, Journal of Clinical Orthodontics, 2009; Vol 43: No 9, p 557-565 11. Olivi, G et al, Lingual Frenectomy: functional evaluation and new therapeutical approach, European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 2/2012, Vol 13, p 101-106 12. Thailander, Birgit Thailander et al. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in children and adolescence. European Journal of Orthodontics; Apr 1, 2001; 23, 2; ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, p 155-167 13. Peng, C. Differential diagnosis between infantile and mature swallowing with ultrasonography European Journal of Orthodontics 25 (2003) 451–456 14. Schmidt, JE et al. Effects of tongue position on mandibular muscle activity and heart rate function. Journal of Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Patholgoy, Radiology and Endodontics 2009 Dec;108(6):881-8 15. Scopa, F. Glosso-postural syndrome, Annali di Stomatologia 2005 A journal of Odontostomatologic Sciences; LIV (1): 27-34
Ref H – Use of lasers 1. Adrian JC. (1979) Effects of carbon dioxide laser radiation on oral soft tissue. Mil Med;144(2):83-89 2. Aras, M H and Gungormis, M Comparison of Diode Laser and Er:YAG Lasers in the Treatment of Ankyloglossia. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery Volume 28, Number 2, 2010,173-177 3. Cecere W, Liebow C. (1990) Laser causes greater growth factor release than scalpel. Lasers Surg Med ; 10(Suppl 2):22, Abstract 79. 4. Fisher SE, Frame JW, Browne RM, Tranter RMD. (1983) A comparative histological study of wound healing following CO2 laser and conventional surgical excision of canine buccal mucosa. Arch Oral Biol; 28(4): 287-291 5. Goldman L, Goldman B, Van Lieu N.(1987) Current laser dentistry. Lasers Surg Med 6(6):559-562. 6. Kotlow, L. SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE: Lasers and Soft Tissue Treatments for the Pediatric Dental, Alpha Omegan, Volume 101, Number 3, pp 140-151 7. Luomanen M, Meurman JH, Lehto V-P. (1987) Extracellular matrix in healing CO2 laser incision wound. J Oral Pathol; 16 (6) 322-331 8. Myers TD, Myers WD, Stone RM (1989) First soft tissue study utilizing a pulsed Nd:YAG . Northwest Dent;68 (2):14-17 9. Olivi, Giovanni, Chaumanet, Gilles, Genovese , Maria Daniela, Beneduce, Carla Andreana, Sebastiano (2010), Er,Cr:YSGG laser labial frenectomy: A clinical retrospective evaluation of 156 consecutive cases, Journal Clinical Dentistry, May/June, 126-133 10. Pié-Sánchez, España-Tost, Arnabat-Domínguez, Gay-Escoda (2012) Comparative study of upper lip frenectomy with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr: YSGG laser Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. Mar 1;17 (2):e228-32. 11. Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. Lasers in Periodontics. (2002) J Periodontol. Oct;73(10):1231-9. 12. Ryu SW, Lee SH, Yoon HJ (2012), A comparative histological and immunehistochemical study of wound healing following incision with a scalpel, CO2 laser or Er, Cr:YSGG laser in the guinea pig oral mucosa, Acta Odontol Scand; Dec 70 (6) : 448-54 13. Science and Research Committee, Academy of Laser Dentistry (2010) Position Paper: Laser Energy in Oral Soft Tissue Applications, J Laser Dent;18(3):123-131 14. Tanya, Priya and Pallavi Patil (2014) Ankyloglossia: Treatment with Surgical Lasers – A Case Report IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences Volume 13, Issue 7 Ver. II (July), pp 61-64 15. Walsh, L (2003) The current status of laser applications in dentistry, Australian Dental Journal; 48:(3):146-155 16. Yamamoto H, Okabe H, Ooya K, Hanaoka S, Ohta S, Kataoka K. (1972) Laser effect on vital oral tissues: A preliminary investigation. J Oral Pathol 1(6), 256- 264 17. Zaffe D, Vitale MC, Martignone A, Scarpelli F, Botticelli AR.(2004) Morphological, histochemical, and immunocytochemical study of CO2 Photomed Laser Surg; 22(3) 185-189
Ref I – Literature review on Tongue Ties 1. Dezio M et al Tongue-tie, from embryology to treatment: a literature review, Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2015;4(1):e040101 2. Edmunds J1 et al. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature. Effects of Tongue Ties on the Mouth Throughout Life. Breastfeed Rev. 2011 Mar;19(1):19-26 3. Francis, O ,et al Treatment of Ankyloglossia and Breastfeeding Outcomes: A Systematic Review PEDIATRICS Volume 135, number 6, June 2015, pp1459-1466
Ref J – Maxillary (Upper) lip ties, aerophagia and breastfeeding 1. Chitkara DK, et al . Aerophagia in children: characterization of a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2005;17(4):518-522 2. Kotlow, L. Infant Reflux and Aerophagia Associated with the Maxillary Lip-tie and Ankyloglossia. Clinical Lactation, 2011 Vol. 2-4, 25-29 3. Kotlow L. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER-Benign Infant Acid Reflux) or just Plain Aerophagia? International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition. 2016;5. 4. Siegel, S, Aerophagia Induced Reflux in Breastfeeding Infants With Ankyloglossia and Shortened Maxillary Labial Frenula Int J Clin Pediatr. 2016;5(1):6-8 5. Siegel S. Aerophagia Induced Reflux Associated with Lip and Tongue Tie in Breastfeeding Infants. J Pediatrics. 2016;137(supplement 3).
Ref K – Effects and Implications of Mouth Breathing 1. Han JN, Stegen K, Simkens K, Cauberghs M, Schepers R, Van den Bergh O, Clément J, Van de Woestijne KP, Unsteadiness of breathing in patients with hyperventilation syndrome and anxiety disorders, Eur Respir J 1997; 10: p. 167–176. 2. Raising CO2 can decrease nasal resistance and treat seasonal rhinitis. Casale, 2008 J Allergy Clin Immunol. 121, 105-109 3. Treatment of mast cells with carbon dioxide suppresses degranulation via a novel mechanism involving repression of increased intracellular calcium levels J. W. Strider, C. G. Masterson & P. L. Durham. Center for Biomedical & Life Sciences, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA 4. Respiratory control and respiratory plasticity become habitually maladaptive via long-term facilitation (LTF). Baker et al. 2001 Respiratory plasticity: differential actions of continuous and episodic hypoxia and hypocapnia. Resp Phys, 129, 25-35 5. Marcus et al. Developmental Aspects of the Upper Respiratory Airway – Report from an NHLBI workshop, March 5-6, 2009 Proc Am Thorac Soc, 15, 6 6. Bowler SD, Green A, Mitchell CA, Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial, Med J of Australia 1998; 169: p. 575-578. 7. Patrick McHugh, Fergus Aitcheson, Bruce Duncan and Frank Houghton Buteyko Breathing Technique for asthma: an effective intervention NZMJ 12 December 2003 V 116 No 1187 8. Zahra Mohamed Hassan, Nermine Mounir Riad, Fatma Hassan Ahmed. Effect of Buteyko breathing technique on patients with bronchial asthma. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis (2012) 61, 235–241 9. High nitric oxide production in human paranasal sinuses. Lundberg JO, FarkasSzallasi T, Weitzberg E, Rinder J, Lidholm J, Anggaard A, Hokfelt T, Lundberg JM, Alving K. Nat Med 1995 April; 1 (4): 370-3. 10. Prevalence of poor sleep quality and its relationship with body mass index among teenagers: evidence from Taiwan. Sch Health. 2013 Aug;83(8):582-8. 11. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality, Sleep Patterns, Consumption of Caffeinated Beverages, and Khat Use among Ethiopian College Students. Seblewengel Lemma, Sheila V. Patel, Yared A. Tarekegn, Mahlet G. Tadesse, Yemane Berhane Bizu Gelaye,and Michelle A. Williams. Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge 501, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Mathematics & Statistics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA 12. H. Brown Otopalik DDS American Journal of Orthodontics – Dentofacial Orthopedics Vol. 113 No. 6 June 1998 13. Ramirez-Yanez, German O., Farrell, Chris. Soft Tissue Dysfunction: a missing clue when treating malocclusions.. International Journal of Functional Orthopedics (2005) 14. Souki BQ, Pimenta GB, Souki MQ, Franco LP, Becker HM, Pinto JA, Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality? Federal University of Minas Gerais, Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 May; 73(5): p.767-773 15. Abreu RR, Rocha RL, Lamounier JA, Guerra AF. Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008 NovDec; 84(6): p.529-535. 16. Costa JR, Pereira SR, Weckx LL, Pignatari SN, Uema SF. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study. Int J Orthod Milwaukee. 2008 Winter; 19(4): p. 13-16
Ref L : Postural implications of Tongue Ties and mouth breathing 1. Dezio M et al Tongue-tie, from embryology to treatment: a literature review, Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine 2015;4(1):e040101 2. Olivi, G et al, Lingual Frenectomy: functional evaluation and new therapeutical approach, European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 2/2012, Vol 13, p 101-106 3. Scopa, F. Glosso-postural syndrome, Annali di Stomatologia 2005 (A journal of Odontostomatologic Sciences); LIV (1): 27-34 4. Michelotti A, Manzo P, Farella M, Martina R. [Occlusion and posture: is there evidence of correlation?]. [Article in Italian]. Minerva Stomatol. 1999;48(11):525- 34. 5. Cuccia A, Caradonna C. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. Clinics. 2009;64(1):61-6. 6. Dezio M, Piras A, Gallottini L, Denotti G. Tongue-tie, from embriology to treatment: a literature review. J Pediatr Neonat Individual Med. 2015;4(1):e040101. doi: 10.7363/040101. 7. Janda V. Muscle Function Testing. London: Butterworth, 1983. 8. Lopez D. Assessing the Effects of Tongue-Tie: Osteopathic Considerations, 2015. http://www.osteopathyny.com/assess-impact-tongue-tie-patients-osteopathicconsiderations/ 9. Page P, Frank CC, Lardner R. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2010, 312 http://www.jandacrossedsyndromes.com/
Ref M – Respiration/airways 1. Harvold, EP et al. Primate experiments on oral respiration Am J Orthodontics 1981 Apr;79(4):359-72. 2. Huang Yu-Shu et al, Short Lingual Frenulum and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children, Int J Pediatr Res 2015, 1:1 3. Conclusion: Mouth breathing appears to be associated with an increased risk for cot death. Eur J Pediatr, 1999 Nov;158 (11):896-901
Ref N – Speech and Language development 1. Fernando, Carmen. Tongue Tie – From Confusion to Clarity. A guide to the diagnosis and treatment of Ankyloglossia. Tandem Publications 1998 and 2016. 2. Broderer, Alison et al. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(44), 13531-13536. 3. Karabulut R et al. Ankyloglossia and effects on breast-feeding, speech problems and mechanical/social issues in children. B-ENT 2008;4(2):81-5 4. Messener AH, Lakakea. The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck 2002 Dec;127(6):539-45. 5. Walls, A. , Pierce, M., Wang, H., Steehler, A., Steehler, M., & Harley, E. H., Jr. (2014). Parental perception of speech and tongue mobility in three-year olds after neonatal frenotomy. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 , 78(1), 128-131.
Ref O – Soft Tissue Dysfunction, Breathing and Malocclusion 1. Dante Bresolin, D.D.S., M.S.D., Peter A. Sharpiro, D.D.S., M.S.D., Gail G. Shapiro, G.M.D., Chapko, M.K. Ph. D., and Dassel, S. M.D. Mouth breathing in allergic children: Its relationship to dentofacial development.. Brasilia, D.F., Brazil, and Seattle, Wash. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1983. 2. Souki BQ, Pimenta GB, Souki MQ, Franco LP, Becker HM, Pinto JA, Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality? Federal University of Minas Gerais, Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 May; 73(5): p.767-773 3. Abreu RR, Rocha RL, Lamounier JA, Guerra AF. Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2008 NovDec; 84(6): p.529-535 4. Costa JR, Pereira SR, Weckx LL, Pignatari SN, Uema SF. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study. Int J Orthod Milwaukee. 2008 Winter; 19(4): p. 13-16 5. Flutter J. The negative effect of mouth breathing on the body and development of the child. Int J Orthod Milwaukee. 2006 Summer; 17(2): p. 31-37 6. Katherine W. L. Vig, BDS, MS, FDS. Nasal Obstruction and Facial Growth: The Strength of Evidence for Clinical Assumptions, DOrth. Dentofacial Ortholi 1998; 113:663-11 7. Soft Tissue Dysfunction: a missing clue when treating malocclusions. German O. Ramirez-Yanez, Chris Farrell. International Journal of Functional Orthopedics (2005)
Ref P – Chiropractics and Breastfeeding 1. Alcantara J, Anderson R. Chiropractic care of a pediatric patient with symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, fuss-cry-irritability with sleep disorder syndrome and irritable infant syndrome of musculoskeletal origin. J Can Chirop Assoc. 2008 Dec;52(4):248-55. 2. Alcantara J1, Alcantara JD, Alcantara J. The chiropractic care of infants with colic: a systematic review of the literature. Explore (NY) 2011 May-Jun;7(3):168-74. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2011.02.00. 3. Gleberzon BJ1, Arts J, Mei A, McManus EL. The use of spinal manipulative therapy for pediatric health conditions: a systematic review of the literature. J Can Chiropr Ass. 2012 Jun;56(2):128-41. 4. Holleman AC, Nee J, Knaap SF. Chiropractic management of breast-feeding difficulties: a case report. J Chirop Med. 2011 Sep;10(3):199-203. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2011.01.010. Epub 2011 Aug 9. 5. Marchand AM1, Miller JE, Mitchell C. Diagnosis and chiropractic treatment of infant headache based on behavioral presentation and physical findings: a retrospective series of 13 cases J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Oct; 32(8):682- 6. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2009.08.026. 6. Miller JE1, Miller L, Sulesund AK, Yevtushenko A. Contribution of chiropractic therapy to resolving suboptimal breastfeeding: a case series of 114 infants. J Manipulative Physiol Ther . 2009 Oct;32(8):670-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2009.08.023. 7. Miller JE1, Newell D, Bolton JE. Efficacy of chiropractic manual therapy on infant colic: a pragmatic single-blind, randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Oct; 35 (8) : 6007 8. Tow J , Vallone S. Development of an Integrative Relationship in the Care of the Breastfeeding Newborn: Lactation Consultant and Chiropractor. Journal of Clinical Chiropractic Pediatrics Volume 10, No. 1, June 2009 626-632 9. Van Poecke AJ1, Cunliffe C. Chiropractic treatment for primary nocturnal enuresis: a case series of 33 consecutive patients. Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009 Oct;32(8):675-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2009.08.019.